In Islamic ethics, sin is an essential idea. Islam teaches that sin is an act, and not a state of life, and Muslims view sin as something that is contrary to God’s (Allah’s) commandments and contradicts the laws and norms laid down in religion. On the day of Judgement, God judges the good deeds of the man and his sins, and punishes those whose bad deeds prevail over the good deeds. These people are believed to be sentenced to life in fires in the world.
In the Qur’an Allah says:
“We will expiate (your) small sins and make you enter an honourable entrance if you avoid large sins that are not permitted to you. (Chapter 4:31).
A mucallaf must therefore know what big sins are, and he / she must stop. Thus, Allah will forgive his minor sins and wrongs in His mercy and according to His promise.
Minhajus Saleheen (of Ayatullah Sayyid Abul Qasim al-Khoui, Dama Zilluhu) takes the following list of the great sins:
1. To believe that Allah has any partner or colleague in His Divinity; to worship someone besides Allah.
2. To lose hope in the mercy of Allah; to believe that Allah would not save him on the day of judgement.
3. To have no fear of Allah; to think that Allah would not punish him for his sins.
4. To misbehave with parents; disobeying them or injuring their feeling.
5. To kill someone unjustly, i.e. without permission of sharia.
6. To slander a married woman, accusing her of adultery.
7. To eat an orphan’s money or property unlawfully and unjustly.
8. To flee from jihad (religious war).
9. To use or eat a thing or money obtained as interest.
10. Fornication and/or adultery.
Praise be to Allah.
The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) explained the seven sins that doom a person to Hell in a saheeh hadeeth that was narrated by the two Shaykhs, al-Bukhaari and Muslim, in as-Saheehayn, in which it was narrated that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Avoid the seven sins that doom a person to Hell.” We said: What are they, O Messenger of Allah? He said: “Associating others with Allah (shirk); witchcraft; killing a soul whom Allah has forbidden us to kill, except in cases dictated by Islamic law; consuming orphans’ wealth; consuming riba; fleeing from the battlefield; and slandering chaste, innocent women.”
How will the major sins be forgiven?
There are two major sins of a kind: failure to uphold “Huqooq-ullah” (duty to Allah) and breach of “Huqooq-ul-“Ibaad” (duty to Allah). The greatest sins regarding the non-observance of Huqooq-ullah including failing to offer convincing or mandatory prayer of any day’s fasting can be forgiven by Allah, the Most Forgiving, so long as the delinquent believers honestly repents to him and seek his forgiveness. He needs to compensate for missing prayers and fasts “Fard” (mandatory) and “Waajib,” when he owes it.
Against that back-bits, robberies or snatches, or robs anybody of the belonging or the belonging of a person, or take money or anybody’s belonging or any gamblings or any gambling interests, are not forgiven by Allah All-Potence while He is the owner, the most important sins related to ‘Huqooq-ul-Ibaad’ as one hurts anybody’s faith, goodness, life, property or even the heart.